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However, much more research is needed. History The Olmecs, one of the first civilizations of the Americas 1500 BC to 400 BC are credited with the first use of cocoa. Cocoa bean processing Harvesting of cocoa beans can proceed all year, but the bulk of the crop is gathered in two flush periods occurring from October to February and from May to. Use of chocolate as an inhaler has been studied. Mood disorders Ingredients in chocolate with potential psychoactive properties have been identified, including the biogenic stimulant amines caffeine, theobromine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine; however, their concentrations are likely to be too low to have an effect. In a study of smokers, 40 g of dark chocolate improved flow-mediated dilation and platelet function polyphenol content was not stated. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was also higher after dark chocolate ingestion. They have been linked to numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, better blood flow, lower blood pressure and and blood sugar levels. 8 mm Hg lower than in the cocoa-free controls. The paste, formed into small cakes, was cooled and hardened on shiny leaves placed under a tree. Theophylline helps your lungs dilate, your airways relax and decreases inflammation. The tree was likely domesticated in the upper Amazon region and then spread northward. Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes obstruction and inflammation of the airways and can be life-threatening ,. Clinical data Theobromine has activity similar to that seen with caffeine ie, increases in energy, motivation to work, and alertness. Despite these promising results, there are inconsistencies in the research with some studies finding only a limited effect, slightly worse control of diabetes or no effect at all , ,. Studies are needed to test the importance of this activity related to eating disorders and obesity. The beans, removed from the pods with their surrounding pulp, are accumulated in leaf-covered heaps, in leaf-lined holes dug in the ground, or in large shallow boxes having perforated bottoms to provide for. Popular Dishes• Overall, it appears that cocoa and cocoa-rich products may be helpful in achieving or maintaining weight, but further studies are needed. However, there are no significant human studies, and the majority of cocoa products consumed by humans also. The polyphenols in chocolate come from the cocoa liquor; therefore, the polyphenol content is highest in cocoa powder, followed by dark chocolate, then milk chocolate, with none in white chocolate. Flavanols in fruits, vegetables and other foods have attracted a great deal of interest due to their , low toxicity and few adverse side effects. Despite popular opinion, cocoa in chocolate is not a cause of. One study concluded that epicatechin content was likely to be the main factor in cocoa's association with beneficial health effects. Cocoa may be allergenic and has caused occupational asthma in confectionery factory workers. White chocolate had no effect on flow-mediated dilation. A review of nine studies in 157,809 people found that higher chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of heart disease, stroke and death. , Cocoa contains the amines and alkaloids theobromine 0. Natural cocoa butter and cocoa beans. Cortez described the preparation and use of a beverage called chocalatl, made of the seeds of T. 9 grams of this compound per 100 grams or 3. However, other studies have found that chocolate consumption increases weight. Cocoa has captivated the world for thousands of years and is a big part of modern cuisine in the form of chocolate. The pharmacologically active ingredients of cocoa seeds include amines, alkaloids, fatty acids, polyphenols including flavonoids , tyramine, magnesium, phenylethylamine, and N-acylethanolamines. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio HR for CHD was 0. Summary Studies reveal that cocoa is rich in flavanols, which lower blood pressure by improving nitric oxide levels and blood vessel function. Patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome who experience reflux esophageal symptoms should eliminate foods that decrease lower esophageal sphincter pressure, such as chocolate and cocoa-containing products, from their diets. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Test-tube studies indicate that cocoa flavanols can slow down carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut, improve insulin secretion, reduce inflammation and stimulate the uptake of sugar out of the blood into the muscle. 7 mm Hg lower, and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 2. A study that followed changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate demonstrated that one area of the brain is involved when there is motivation or craving to eat chocolate, while another area is involved when the desire to eat chocolate is decreased or becomes unpleasant. Ingredients in chocolate may precipitate migraine headaches, and cocoa products may be allergenic. The flavanols in cocoa are thought to levels in the blood, which can enhance the function of your blood vessels and reduce blood pressure ,. Smoothies: Cocoa can be added to your favorite healthy smoothie recipe to give it a richer, chocolatey taste. The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating to the 16th century. A study using functional magnetic imaging in healthy young people found that ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with increased cerebral blood flow suggesting that cocoa may play a role in the treatment of cerebral impairment, including dementia and stroke. The caffeine in cocoa may have an additive effect with other caffeine-containing products. Near Landmarks• Furthermore, another study discovered that drinking high-polyphenol cocoa improved calmness and contentment. Additionally, a review of human studies showed that eating flavanol-rich dark chocolate or cocoa can reduce , control and reduce inflammation in diabetic and nondiabetic people. Additionally, the updated meta-analysis conducted by the same authors that included these data showed similar results. — You may be reminded of mole by this sauce that includes cocoa powder, lime zest, orange juice and ground allspice. Polyphenols are naturally occurring antioxidants found in foods like fruits, vegetables, tea, chocolate and. The ripe seed pods are cut from the trees and split open with machetes. In fact, cocoa polyphenols have been found to provide significant benefits for your skin. Though overconsumption of chocolate is certainly not good for blood sugar control, cocoa does, in fact, have some anti-diabetic effects. Platelet reactivity In the previous study, 2 hours after ingestion of dark chocolate, the shear stress-dependent platelet function was also reduced. It is also used by confectioners as coating for candy bars and boxed or bulk chocolates, by bakery product manufacturers and bakers as coating for many types of and , and by companies as coating for frozen novelties. Additionally, flavanols influence the production of nitric oxide, which relaxes the muscles of your blood vessels, improving blood flow and blood supply to your brain ,. Two Swedish studies found that chocolate intake is linked to a lower rate of heart failure at doses of up to one serving of 0. Resveratrol in medicinal chemistry: a critical review of its pharmacokinetics, drug-delivery, and membrane interactions. , , , , , , , , , , N-acylethanolamines are compounds found in chocolate that are structurally similar to anandamine, which is similar to the cannabinoid responsible for euphoria from cannabis. Summary Cocoa products are associated with a lower weight, and the addition of cocoa to your diet may help achieve faster weight loss. However, the results of these studies cannot be extrapolated to patients with any condition s or disease s , nor to the effects of chronic chocolate consumption. The European Food Safety Authority recommends 0. A high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms has also been recorded in workers exposed to cocoa. Supplementation of the pure flavoinoids epicatechin and quercetin affects some biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in pre hypertensive adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. One study on chocolate consumption and stress levels in pregnant women found that more frequent intake of chocolate was associated with reduced stress and improved mood in babies. Vegan chocolate mousse: Process , cocoa, almond milk and a sweetener like dates for a thick vegan chocolate mousse. Cocoa is rich in polyphenols that have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Long-term ingestion of cocoa has been shown to contribute to sun protection, skin blood circulation and improve the surface texture and hydration of your skin ,. The plant may contain small amounts of safrole, a carcinogen banned by the Food and Drug Administration. , Interactions None well documented. When compared with that of the lowest tertile, the adjusted relative risk for men in the highest tertile was 0. The mean systolic blood pressure in the highest tertile of cocoa intake was 3. These compounds may not exert their effect by binding with the tetrahydrocannabinol receptors, but by inhibiting breakdown of endogenously produced anandamine, thus prolonging a "natural high. Too bitter for European taste, the mixture was sweetened with when introduced to the Spanish court. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Gijsbers L, Schalkwijk C, Kromhout D, Hollman PC. Cacao is often used to describe the raw material, while cocoa is used to describe the processed products. Theobromine, when ingested in the form of a large chocolate bar, did not cause any acute hemodynamic or electrophysiologic cardiac changes in young, healthy adults. A nonlinear dose response was observed with low to moderate chocolate consumption, but not high dose, associated with a reduced risk of heart failure HR, 0. 5 grams of high-flavanol cocoa powder or 0. The broken kernels, or nibs, were roasted in earthen pots and then ground to a paste in a concave stone, called a metate, over a small fire. The characteristically bitter taste of cocoa is generated by the reaction of diketopiperazines with theobromine during roasting. As a result, new products will need to be developed to experience the oral health benefits of cocoa. After cocoa diets, the mean systolic blood pressure was 4. It has been demonstrated that thoughts of chocolate are overpowering and prey on the mind. Additionally, a study in senior men showed that eating chocolate was linked to improved overall health and better psychological well-being. The proliferation of flavoured, solid, and coated chocolate foods rapidly followed. In a study of smokers, the ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink increased the circulating pool of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The fruits are large and football shaped, with quarter-sized seeds referred to as cocoa beans. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. These properties have been linked to a lower risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke , , ,. Clinical data A study in which a depressive mood was induced demonstrated a correlation with an increase in chocolate craving. At that time, physicians also stated that all that was necessary for breakfast was chocolate, because it yielded good nourishment for the body. Sterculiaceae Botany The cocoa tree grows to heights exceeding 8 m. Although the sample sizes were large, limitations included no discernment between milk or dark chocolate, confounders associated with observational study design, and assessment of chocolate consumption only at baseline. Several studies have found that polyphenols, such as those in cocoa, may reduce your risk of neurodegenerative diseases by and blood flow. Yet, many of them did not differentiate between the type of chocolate consumed — white and milk chocolate do not have the same benefits as dark ,. Adding cocoa can give a delicious chocolate taste to your dishes. Recipes using cacao were recorded in 15th century Mayan codices. " Documents have been discovered indicating that chocolate was used naturopathically and prescribed to patients by some physicians for a variety of diseases during the 18th and 19th century in America, including cholera, consumption tuberculosis , scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, and yellow fever. Cocoa Scientific Name s : Theobroma cacao L. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower after dark chocolate ingestion. A meta-analysis looking specifically at chocolate consumption on heart failure risk identified 5 studies that met eligibility criteria; all were high quality. , Cocoa butter suppositories have been used since the early 1900s to relieve hemorrhoids, and the ointment has been applied to the breasts of nursing women. In the Zutphen elderly, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between cocoa intake and blood pressure, as well as a 15-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the median cocoa intake among users was 2. Flavanols can cross the blood-brain barrier and are involved in the biochemical pathways that produce neurons and important molecules for the function of your brain. However, human trials are needed before it can be recommended as a treatment. Similar reductions in diastolic blood pressure were noted at 4 weeks 8. , , Dark chocolate and cocoa inhibit LDL oxidation and increase high-density lipoprotein HDL -cholesterol concentrations. In Aztec society, cocoa beans were used to pay annual taxes to the Emperor. One review analyzed 35 experiments that provided patients with 0. 1 ounces 19—30 grams of chocolate per day, but the effect was not seen when consuming higher amounts ,. Recent Examples on the Web Place milk, cocoa powder and sugar in a small saucepan. Test-tube studies on components of cocoa have found that they have antioxidant effects, protect cells against damage from reactive molecules, fight inflammation, inhibit cell growth, induce cancer cell death and help prevent the spread of cancer cells ,. Adverse effects more common in the flavanol-rich intervention groups included GI complaints and distaste of the product. Subgroup analysis revealed that the reduction was significant only when compared to flavanol-free controls and not low-flavanol controls. This indicator of higher NO production is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. , Dosing No specific dosing recommendations can be made. , In a study of 470 elderly men, blood pressure was measured at baseline and then 5 years later, with causes of death ascertained during 15 years of follow-up. , , , Two of these studies provide data specific to the effects of cocoa. Because endothelial dysfunction has been observed during hyperglycemia, the effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate on flow-mediated dilation was investigated in 12 healthy volunteers. Use of large amounts of cocoa with monoamine oxidase inhibitors may precipitate a hypertensive crisis because of cocoa's tyramine content. Consumption of foods rich in flavanols are also associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, suggesting that this specific group of flavonoids may have potent cardioprotective qualities. They were then crossed over after another 7-day, cocoa-free, period. , Most studies have used dark chocolate in order to avoid a possible milk interference; however, one study using milk chocolate found positive effects on blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and markers of oxidative stress in young men who exercised. The Mayan word cacao entered scientific nomenclature in 1753, and the words theo "god" and broma "nectar" or "food" are Latinized Greek. No effect was seen with white chocolate. Cocoa may increase the risk of toxicity or adverse reactions of clozapine because caffeine inhibits clozapine metabolism. Sprinkle over fruit: Cocoa is particularly nice sprinkled over bananas or strawberries. In addition to lowering blood pressure, it appears that cocoa has other properties that may reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke , ,. 5 for cardiovascular mortality and 0. A meta-analysis was performed of 5 randomized, controlled studies involving 173 subjects. In another study 34,489 cardiovascular disease-free postmenopausal women were followed for 16 years. The Aztec beverage was made from sun-dried shelled , probably fermented in their pods. 22257059 Disclaimer This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. — Zager said the campaign had tents, heaters, generators, hot cocoa, and handwarmers available for guests. Food and pharmaceutical additives Cocoa products are used extensively in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, processing and heating cocoa can cause it to lose its beneficial properties. ", , Uses and Pharmacology Cocoa has been reported to be a source of natural antioxidants the free radical scavengers that preserve cell membranes, protect DNA, prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis, and prevent plaque formation in arterial walls. Findings were similar in another study of 32 healthy subjects who consumed 234 mg of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins or placebo per day for 28 days. However, because polyphenols can be destroyed during processing, some products may actually have a low polyphenol content. Cancer Data suggest that flavonoid-rich food contributes to cancer prevention. A study comparing the effects of dark and white chocolate on flow-mediated dilation found that dark chocolate improved flow-mediated dilation after 2 hours compared with baseline, with the effect lasting about 8 hours. No association was found in the dose-response meta-analysis, the stratified analysis by gender, or the categorical analysis between the highest vs the lowest category of chocolate consumed. Because there have been very few dose-response studies, it is difficult to estimate the amount of chocolate necessary for an antioxidant effect. Conflicting results were demonstrated when chocolate was tested as an initiator of migraine headaches. Adverse Reactions Children consuming large amounts of chocolate and caffeinated beverages may exhibit tics or restlessness. 4 ounces 10 grams of high-flavanol dark chocolate containing at least 200 mg of flavanols per day to achieve heart health benefits. Animal studies have shown that cocoa extract can reduce both the constriction of the airways and tissue thickness. Cocoa butter is also used as a suppository and ointment base, as an emollient, and as an ingredient in various topical cosmetic preparations. Summary Cocoa may exert some positive effects on mood and symptoms of depression by reducing stress levels and improving calmness, contentment and overall psychological well-being. A population study found that people who consumed chocolate more frequently had a lower BMI than people who ate it less often, despite the former group also eating more calories and fat. However, one randomized trial demonstrated that supplementation of chocolate with calcium 0. Summary Cocoa extract has demonstrated some anti-asthmatic properties in animal studies. The use of cocoa to treat or prevent magnesium deficiency in humans has not been explored. Near Landmarks• These polymers are known as procyanidins. Today, cocoa is most famous for its role in chocolate production. Popular Restaurant Categories• Increases observed in circulating nitrite, but not in circulating nitrate, paralleled the observed flow-mediated dilation augmentation. Dosing No specific dosing recommendations can be made. took cocoa beans to after his fourth voyage in 1502, and the Spanish conquistadores, arriving in in 1519, were introduced to a chocolate beverage by the Aztec. ' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. From the processed cocoa bean comes the fluid paste, or liquor, from which cocoa powder and are made. Eating up to one serving of chocolate per day may reduce your risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke. Puddings: You can add raw cocoa powder not Dutch to homemade puddings like chia breakfast puddings or rice pudding. 4—105 grams of cocoa products, or roughly 30—1,218 mg of flavanols. , Interactions Due to cocoa's caffeine content, many interactions are theoretically possible if large doses are consumed. Cocoa is one of the richest sources of polyphenols. Cocoa contains many compounds that have antibacterial, anti-enzymatic and immune-stimulating properties that may contribute to its oral health effects. , A standard chocolate bar 40 to 50 g contains theobromine 86 to 240 mg and caffeine 9 to 31 mg. It was widely more than 3,000 years ago by the , , and peoples, who prepared a beverage from the bean sometimes using it as a ceremonial drink and also used the bean as a currency. Cocoa butter, also known as theobroma oil, may have a faint chocolate odor that can be removed following further purification. In another study, a half-maximal, flow-mediated dilation 2 hours after consumption was achieved with 616 mg total flavanols. Magnesium deficiency In rats, the magnesium contained in cocoa has been shown to prevent and correct chronic magnesium deficiency. Popular Amenities• This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. Clinical data Multiple epidemiological studies have found an inverse association between the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Diet was assessed at 5-year intervals, with cocoa intake estimated from the consumption of cocoa-containing foods; mean intake among users was approximately 2. While the results of these early studies are promising, more research on the effect of cocoa on mood and depression is needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn. Questionnaires filled out by study subjects have shown that there is a weakness for chocolate in individuals who are under emotional stress, bored, upset, or feeling down. Cocoa contains more than 300 volatile compounds, the most important flavor components being aliphatic esters, polyphenols, aromatic carbonyls, and theobromine which also prevent rancidity of the fat. A similar result also has been shown with cocaine craving. Adverse Reactions Caffeine from the ingestion of large amounts of chocolate, along with 2 to 4 caffeinated beverages, was correlated with the appearance of tics in 2 children. Toxicology Cocoa is nontoxic when ingested in typical confectionery amounts. Theobromine is produced commercially from cocoa husks. , , In animals, cocoa butter has been shown to be comedogenic; however, this has not been proven in humans. The fruits are borne on the trunk and branches, with the seeds imbedded in a sticky pulp. Additionally, the effect was greater in people who already had high blood pressure than those without it and in older people compared to younger people. In one study, rats infected with oral bacteria that were given cocoa extract had a significant reduction in dental cavities, compared to those given only water. No other biomarkers were significantly affected by epicatechin. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. Several studies have explored the protective effects of cocoa against dental cavities and gum disease. In 1847 the English firm of combined , a by-product of the pressing, with chocolate liquor and to produce eating chocolate, and in 1876 of added dried milk to make milk chocolate. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. An in vitro study showed that breast cancer cells are selectively susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of cocoa-derived pentameric procyanidin and suggest that inhibition of cellular proliferation by this compound is associated with the sire-specific dephosphorylation or down-regulation of several cell cycle regulatory proteins. In a study evaluating the effect of cocoa ingestion on modulated human platelet activation and primary hemostasis, cocoa consumption suppressed ADP- or epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and platelet microparticle formation, and had an aspirin-like effect on primary hemostasis. , Although, the relatively high stearic acid content in cocoa products was once purported to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease CHD , it is no longer considered to play a role in the reduction of CHD risk. When mostly healthy, normotensive subjects received daily flavanol-rich 30 to 1,080 mg , low-flavanol 6. During the 20th century especially after the 1930s , the consumption of chocolate shifted from medicinal to confectionery. It also promotes healthy skin by protecting it from sunlight and improving circulation, the skin surface and hydration. Cocoa has the highest concentration of flavanols out of all foods per weight and can significantly contribute to their amount in your diet. com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Claus and reindeer are off; no hot cocoa or cookie samples this year, either, for safety's sake. Similar conclusions were noted in the 2017 updated meta-analysis that added 17 trials to the review for a total of 1,804 mainly healthy participants. Phenolic flavonoids, which are present in red wine and chocolate, may have a role in precipitating migraines. Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between the consumption of cocoa and the risk of cardiovascular disease. and various spices and herbs were added, and maize was sometimes used to produce milder flavour. Endothelial and vascular function Populations that consume cocoa routinely excrete more nitric oxide NO metabolites than genetically similar groups with less consumption.。 。 。

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